(see MAURISTS.). The education of these children was the germ out of which afterward developed the great monastic schools. 1550, d. 1623; founder of the congregation of St.-Vannes (1598). The Benedictines have numbered kings and emperors and many distinguished persons amongst their confratres, and there is hardly a monastery of the present day which has not some lay people connected with it by this spiritual bond of union. Feckenham, afterwards Abbot of Westminster under Queen Mary, was the last English Benedictine to graduate at Oxford (about 1537) until, in 1897, the community of Ampleforth Abbey opened a hall and sent some of their monks there to study for degrees. (4) The Bursfeld Union.—Although more fully dealt with in a separate article, something must be said here about this congregation. B. the Cistercians . St. Sturm (Bavaria), d. 779; first Abbot of Fulda. All power was vested in a committee of "definitors", in whose hands were all appointments, from that of president down to the lowest official in the smallest monastery. The Beuronese constitutions were first adopted, but these have since been replaced by new constitutions. The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Benedict. Other important Anglo-Saxon convents were: Ely, founded by St. Etheldreda in 673, Barking (675), Wimborne (713), Wilton (800), Ramsey, Hants (967), and Amesbury (980). Germain Morin, of the Beuronese congregation, b. The monks now work for their upkeep. Joseph Pothier (France), b. In this way the true Benedictine ideal was restored, whilst by means of general chapters, at which every monastery of the congregation was represented, and by the periodical visitations made by the presidents or others elected for that duty, uniform observance and regular discipline were preserved. Around many of the greater monasteries towns grew up which have since become famous in history; Monte Cassino in Italy and Peterborough and St. Alban's in England are examples. Des ordres religieux (Paris, 1860); Mege, Commentaire sur la regle de S. Benoit (Paris, 1687); Calmet, Commentaire (Paris, 1734); Menard, Codex regularum (Paris, 1638); Besse, Le moine benedictin (Ligugé, 1898); Braunmuller in Kirchenlex., s.v. The Yankton Benedictines trace their roots to St. Benedict who founded the Benedictine way of life at Monte Cassino, Italy in the 5th century. The arch-abbey was founded by Stephen, the first king of Hungary, in 1001, and together with the other houses enjoys an unbroken succession from the date of foundation. St. Willibrord (England), born c. 658, d. 738; the Apostle of Friesland. 999, d. 1073; founder of Vallombrosa (1039). The grave charges brought against the monks by Henry VIII's Visitors, though long believed in, are not now credited by serious historians. He was the author of many books, one of which, his "De Institutione Clericorum", is a valuable treatise on the faith and practice of the Church in the ninth century. English history is especially fortunate in this respect, the monastic chroniclers including St. Bede, Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, Matthew Paris, and Eadmer of Canterbury. They were at first under the direction of the Olivetan Benedictines, but after the death of their foundress, in 1440, they became independent. 1810, d. 1878; founder and first Abbot-General of Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance (1851). St. Gregory the Great (Rome); born c. 540, d. 604; one of the four Latin doctors; celebrated for his writings and for his reform of ecclesiastical change; called the "Apostle of England" because he sent St. Augustine to that country in 596. Mention has already been made of the work of the Sylvestrine Benedictines in Ceylon and of the Cistercians in Natal, South Africa. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Another phase of Benedictine influence may be founded in the work of those monks who, from the sixth to the twelfth century, so frequently acted as the chosen counsellors of kings, and whose wise advice and guidance had much to do with the political history of most of the countries of Europe during that period. St. Mechtilde, sister to St. Gertrude and nun at Eisleben. In Germany: Fulda, much indebted to Charlemagne and Rabanus Maurus, with 400 copyists under Abbot Sturm, and containing, in 1561, 774 volumes; New Corbie, manuscripts removed to the University of Marburg in 1811; Hirschau, dating from 837; St. Blaise. They continued thus until well into the seventeenth century, when systematic congregations were organized in compliance with the Tridentine decrees, as well be described in due course. (d) The French Province, perhaps the most numerous and flourishing in the congregation, dates from 1859. A monk of the Beuron congregation, Dom Leo Linse, was at the same time appointed its first abbot. From Corbie, in Picardy, one of the most famous monasteries in France, St. Ansgar set out in 827 for Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, in each of which countries he founded many monasteries and firmly planted the Benedictine Rule. It is at least certain that when Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, where they were housed by Pope Pelagius II in a monastery adjoining the Lateran Basilica. The old Spanish congregation, which ceased to exist in 1835, is dealt with separately. A. the Franciscans . Jerome Vaughan (England), b. It should be noted here that these several attempts were directed only towards securing outward uniformity, and that as yet there was apparently no idea of a congregation, properly so called, with a central source of all legislative authority. Magnoald Ziegelbauer (Germany), 1689, d. 1750; author of a literary history of the Order of St. Benedict. The monks dedicate themselves mainly to liturgical prayer, whose amount gradually increases. The Order of the Brothers Hospitallers of Burgos originated in a hospital attached to a convent of Cistercian nuns in that town. It had enrolled amongst its members 20 emperors, 10 empresses, 47 kings, and 50 queens. As Christianity spread through the land this necessity for mutual dependence diminished, but when St. Benedict Biscop came to England with Archbishop Theodore in 669, it fell to him to foster a spirit of uniformity amongst the various Benedictine monasteries then existing. Thus St. Birinus evangelized Wessex, St. Chad the Midlands, and St. Felix East Anglia, whilst the Celtic monks from Iona settled at Lindisfarne, whence the work of St. Paulinus in Northumbria was continued by St. Aidan, St. Cuthbert, and many others. John Thorn, monks of Glastonbury; Bl. 1609, d. 1685. (b) Einsiedeln, founded 934, the abbey from which the Swiss-American congregation has sprung. Richard Whiting, abbot of Glastonbury, Bl. (2) Hospitallers Many noble ladies and royal princesses of France are reckoned amongst the abbesses of Fontevrault. Ordo Sancti Benedicti. 1670, d. 1725. Hermannus Contractus (Germany), eleventh century; a monk of St. Gall; learned in Eastern languages; author of the "Salve Regina". To facilitate its introduction, monks were sent from St.-Vannes in 1618 to initiate the stricter observance. Gregoire Tarrisse, b. All these colleges flourished until the Reformation, and even after the dissolution of the monasteries many of the ejected monks retired to Oxford on their pensions, to pass the remainder of their days in the peace and seclusion of their Alma Mater. St. Francis of Paola is responsible for the founding of which religious order? Benedetto Bonazzi (Italy), b. We serve the Church through a ministry of prayer and a dedication to the Eucharist. A century later, in 910, the first real reform that produced any widespread and general effect was commenced at the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, under St. Berno, its first abbot. St. Gregory's at Douai was established in 1605, St. Lawrence's at Dieulouard in Lorraine in 1606, and St. Edmund's at Paris in 1611. The Benedictine Order. It became chiefly celebrated for the literary achievements of its members, amongst whom it counted Mabillon, Montfaucon, d'Achery, Martene, and many others equally famous for their erudition and industry. A monk not in sacred orders was always considered as eligible as a priest for any office in the community, even that of abbot, though for purposes of convenience some of the monks were usually ordained for the service of the altar; and until literary and scholastic work, which could only be undertaken by men of some education and culture, began to take the place of manual labour, all shared alike in the daily round of agricultural and domestic duties. In the latter country, however, it was not an entirely new idea, for we learn from Bede's "Ecclesiastical History" (I, xxvii) that even in St. Augustine's time some sort of "common life" was in vogue amongst the bishops and their clergy. The Celtic rule was not entirely supplanted by that of St. Benedict until more than a hundred years later, when the change was effected chiefly through the influence of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In England and America the Benedictine schools rank high amongst the educational establishments of those countries, and compete successfully with the non-Catholic schools of a similar class. The Emperor Francis I, however, restored several of them between the years 1809 and 1816, and in 1889 those that still survived, some twenty in number, were formed into two new congregations under the titles of the Immaculate Conception and St. Joseph, respectively. (13) The Bavarian Congregation.—A reform initiated amongst the monasteries of Bavaria, based upon the Tridentine decrees, caused the erection of this congregation in 1684. (8) The Swiss Congregation.—The earliest monasteries in Switzerland were founded from Luxeuil by the disciples of Columbanus, amongst whom was St. Gall, who established the celebrated abbey afterwards known by his name. In Spain monasteries had been founded by the Visigothic kings as early as the latter half of the fifth century, but it was probably some two or three hundred years later St. Benedict's Rule was adopted. Notwithstanding all these reform movements and unions of monasteries, a large number of Benedictine abbeys in different countries retained to the end of the twelfth century, and even later, their original independence, and this state of things was only terminated by the regulations of the Fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, which were to change materially the whole trend of Benedictine polity and history. points out that the profits accruing from the labour of the monks were employed ungrudgingly for the relief of the distressed, and in times of famine many thousands were saved from starvation by the charitable foresight of the monks. In Ceylon the Sylvestrine Benedictines have undertaken (1883) missionary work amongst the natives in the Diocese of Kandy, the bishop of which is a member of the order; and still more recently the congregation of St. Ottilien, expressly established to provide workers for the foreign mission field, has established missions amongst the native tribes of Central Africa, where the seeds of the Faith have already been watered by the blood of its first martyrs. They established the following monasteries: St. Sebastian, Bahia, (1581); Our Lady of Montserrat, Rio de Janeiro (1589); St. Benedict, Olinda (1640); the Assumption, Sao Paulo (1640); Our Lady's, Parahyba (1641); Our Lady's, Brotas (1650); Our Lady's, near Bahia (1658); and four priories dependent on Sao Paulo. In dealing with these reformed congregations a distinction must be made between those which, like Cluny, continued to be considered as part of the main Benedictine body, and those which constituted practically new and independent orders, like Cîteaux, and have always been looked upon as outside the Benedictine confederation, though still professing the Rule of St. Benedict in some form or other. In Spain: Montserrat, the majority of the manuscripts still existing; Valladolid; Salamanca; Silos, library still existing; Madrid. (17) The American Cassinese Congregation.—Nothing very definite can be said with regard to the first Benedictines in North America. The Benedictines of Mary, Queen of Apostles were established in 1995 in the Diocese of Scranton, Penn., as a small religious order of nuns. St. John Gualbert (Italy), b. Lérins, for instance, one of the oldest, which had been founded by St. Honoratus in 375, probably received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. 680, martyred 755; Apostle of Germany and Archbishop of Mainz. J. In 1859 St. Michael's priory, at Belmont, near Hereford, was established, in compliance with a decree of Pius IX, as a central novitiate and house of studies for the whole congregation. Pothier and Mocquereau, is of world-wide reputation. 1384, d. 1440; widow; founded order of Oblates (Collatines) in 1425. Benedict.). The Congregation of St.-Maur Nicolas Menard, b. Nunneries were founded in Gaul by Sts. Thus St. Birinus evangelized Wessex, St. Chad the Midlands, and St. Felix East Anglia, whilst the Celtic monks from Iona settled at Lindisfarne, whence the work of St. Paulinus in Northumbria was continued by St. Aidan, St. Cuthbert, and many others. 1834, d. 1896; founder of Swiss American congregation (1870); Abbot of St. Meinrad's, Indiana (1870); Vicar Apostolic of Dakota (1879). Although foreshadowed by the Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) capitula of 817 under St. Benedict of Aniane, the actual results of which died out with their originator, the first real departure from the Benedictine ideal, subjecting the superiors of different houses to one central authority, was made by Cluny in the tenth century. The order was suppressed in 1312. St. Ælred, b. For this reason they adopted a white dress, to which they added a red cross. Australia has been twice re-elected including Switzerland and the residence of the `` Mirror for monks '' )! 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